All fabrics are made from fibres.
Fibres are twisted together by spinning to make yarn.
Yarn is knitted or woven to make fabrics.
Different ways of knitting or weaving change the type of fabric, altering the look, properties and feel.

Fibres can also be joined together by felting, stiching or chemicals (missing out the spinning process) to make non woven fabrics.

Names of different types of fabrics. Useful for annotating your product designs.

Knitting and Weaving Diagrams

knitting weaving.jpg
This diagram often appears in exams and you need to identify the construction either knitting or weaving.

Woven fabricsweaving.jpeg

  • Woven fabrics are made by interlacing yarns on a loom. Warp goes up and down Weft goes left and right, are ways to identify the construction.
  • Fray easily when cut
  • Don't stretch much.
  • A close weave gives a strong and firm fabric.
  • Are strongest along the straight grain of the fabric.
  • Cool in tempreture
  • Industrial weaving

Types of woven fabric

  • Satin
  • Twill fabrics such as denim
  • Pile fabric such as velvet, towelling.
  • Plain cotton, polycotton or canvas.

Products made from woven fabrics

  • Products that you don't want to loose shape by stretching.
  • curtains
  • trousers
  • shirts
  • towels
  • carpet

Knitted fabrics

Types of knitted fabric

  • Jersey
  • Double jersey
  • Velour
  • Fur fabric
  • Fleece

Products made from knitted fabrics

  • Products that you want to stretch and have some give.
  • T shirts
  • Jumpers
  • Track suits
  • Cuddly toys

Non Woven Fabricsfelt.jpeg

  • Made by sticking fibres together by heat, glue, needle punching or felting.
  • Cheap fabrics as by using fibres the process of spinning the fibres into yarn is missed out, saving money.
  • Weak, easily torn fabrics as fibres are not held together in any structured, secure way.
  • Break rather than stretch.
  • Shouldn't be used as the base fabric of a product as will not wash or wear well due to structure.
  • Used in hospitals and beauty salons where they are used and disposed of.

Types of Non Woven fabrics

  • Interfacing (vilene)
  • Bondaweb
  • Felt
  • Wadding

Products made from Non Woven fabrics

  • Often used to make disposable items such as disposable knickers, fabric on sanitary towels.
  • Cleaning cloths such as Jeye cloths.
  • Support or strengthening for garments - interfacing, bondaweb.
  • Childrens toys - Fuzzy Felt, Finger puppets.

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